Toàn văn 3 bản Tuyên ngôn độc lập trong lịch sử của Việt Nam

Our people had to go through countless difficulties and challenges to gain independence and freedom from the hands of brutal enemies. Today, let’s take a look at the famous Declarations of the nation

1. The first manifesto of Vietnamese history:

1.1. Contents of Song Nam Quoc Son Ha:

According to historical documents, Nam Quoc Son Ha is a divine poem, read by the god to help Ly Thuong Kiet defeat the Song army in 1076. This poem is considered the first Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, affirming sovereignty of Vietnam. rights of Vietnam. The power of the ruler of Dai Viet over his land

Nam Quoc Son Ha was originally a poem in Chinese characters, seven characters, without a name. Nam Quoc Son Ha was compiled by the editors of an anthology of Vietnamese poetry and literature, volume 2 (Literature Publishing House, published in 1976).

Nam Quoc Son Ha is a seven-word poem, the author is unknown, but some people think it is by Ly Thuong Kiet. This is a famous poem in Vietnamese history, considered the first Vietnamese Declaration of Independence.

If in the first two sentences, the author firmly affirms that national sovereignty is a sacred and immutable truth, the last two sentences are words of decisive battle and decisive victory over the invaders. In “Nam Quoc Son Ha” Ly Thuong Kiet clearly shows his confidence and national pride. This is reflected in the author’s liberal tone and use of the word “de” in the author’s original work.

Thus, with the stature of the first Declaration of Independence, “Nam Quoc Son Ha” both affirmed territorial sovereignty and expressed the belief that victory is inevitable based on truth and justice. It is also the sublimation of the national soul forged from the history of resistance wars against aggression.

This poem has no name, the name Nam Quoc Son Ha was compiled by the editors of the Anthology of Vietnamese Poetry and Literature Volume 2 (Literature Publishing House published in 1976).

Nam Quoc Son Ha

Nam Quoc Son Ha Nam Emperor,
However the natural pasteurized at a department.
Like the breach of the hole invasion,
Anhydrous acts as being unbeaten damaged craft.

1.2. Circumstances of birth:

This historical manifesto in poetry was born in a special historical situation.

In 1076, 30,000 Song troops led by Quach Quy invaded our country. Ly Thuong Kiet was the general who commanded our army to fight against the Northern enemy.

He set up a line on Nhu Nguyet River (also known as Cau River) to prevent the enemy. After that, he sent troops to surround the waters of Quang Ninh. Due to the difference in strength, the Song army at one point broke through the defense line of Nhu Nguyet River.

Faced with a difficult situation, to encourage soldiers’ morale and express their will, Ly Thuong Kiet read the poem “god”.

1.3. Place where Ly Thuong Kiet read poetry:

The place where Ly Thuong Kiet read Vietnam’s first declaration of independence was the temple of Truong Hong and Truong Hat on the south bank of Nhu Nguyet River (now Cau River).

For more details about where Ly Thuong Kiet read the first declaration of independence of the South, please refer to the article: Where did Ly Thuong Kiet read the first declaration of independence of the South.

2. Vietnam’s 2nd Declaration of Independence:

2.1. Contents of the article Binh Ngo Dai Cao:

Binh Ngo Dai Cao is an indictment in Chinese written by Nguyen Trai in the spring of 1428, on behalf of Binh Dinh Vuong Le Loi declared the successful end of the resistance war with the Ming Dynasty, affirming Dai Viet’s independence. This is considered the second Declaration of Independence of Vietnam.

The name Binh Ngo Dai Cao means to declare victory over the invading Wu army (Wo here is both the title of Chu Nguyen Chuong and the origin and ancestor of Chu Nguyen Chuong – the founder of the Ming Dynasty).

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Ever heard:
The core of humanity is to rest in peace,
Military fines before worrying about violence;
Like our Dai Viet country before,
Having proclaimed a culture for a long time,
The mountains and rivers are divided,
North and South customs are also different;
Tu Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran have built an independent foundation for generations
Along with Han, Tang, Song, and Nguyen, each side is strong in one direction;
Although strong and weak are different at times,
But there are always masterpieces.

Liu Gong was greedy and failed;
Trieu Tiet likes to die big;
Ham Tu Gate captured Toa Do alive
Bach Dang River kills O Ma
The old review, the evidence is still recorded.

The Ho family is the trouble
Let the people’s hearts resent in the country
Minh’s mad army took the opportunity to cause harm
Evil people also sell water to pray for glory
Roast the black people on the ferocious fire
Bury the red child in the pit of disaster
Lies to the sky and deceives the people with thousands of plans
Making enmity and ending a grudge for decades
Defeat humanity and destroy heaven and earth.
Heavy taxes clean not swamp mountains.
People were forced into the sea to search for pearls, bored instead of sharks.
Those who are brought to the mountains to search for gold, woe to the deep forests and poisonous water.
Picking up produce, catching birds and returning them to a place of nets.
Disturbing people, catching black deer traps, where pitfalls are located.
Harms even insects and plants,
Puppies instead of poor widows.
The boy opened his mouth, the boy bared his teeth, he was full of blood and fat and was not bored,
Now to build a house, tomorrow to build the ground, which limbs to serve to fit?
Heavily the famous phen
Discard the whole farming profession.
Cruelly, Nam Son bamboo does not record all the crimes,
Dirty instead, Dong Hai water does not wash off the smell!
Why is heaven and earth forgiving? Who said the people could stand it?

I am here:
Lam Son mountain raises meaning
The wild place to take refuge
Think about the great enemy, the common heavens
Hate the enemy and swear not to live together
Heartache, headache, ten years
Taste the honey lying thorns, maybe one or two early in the evening.
Forgetting to eat because of anger, the strategy of exercise and judgment has been refined,
Thinking about it up to now, the reason for this has been carefully considered.
Tossing and turning in dreams,
Just wondering about one thing
As soon as the flag is raised,
That’s when the enemy is strong.

Again because:
Tuan is as exhausted as the morning star,
Talent is like autumn leaves,
The escape lacks helpers,
Where evil is rarely discussed,
The heart to save the country, still looking forward to the east,
The chariot is gentle, often attentive, and reserved for the left side.

So that:
Looking at people, people are more and more absent, like looking at the ocean.
On my own, I must devote myself, and hurry to save a drowning person.
Partly because he was angry with his enemies,
Partly because of the difficult water transportation,
When Linh Son’s salary ran out for a few weeks,
At Khoi Huyen’s army there was no team.
God tries to give great destiny
We try to overcome difficulties.
The people live in four houses, raise bamboo sticks and fluttering flags
Generals have a fatherly heart, mix the river water with a cup of sweet wine.
An outstanding battle, against the strong against the weak,
Use ambush troops, take less and more enemies.

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All good:
Bringing great justice to conquer cruelty,
Use will to replace violence.
Battle of Bo Dang thunder and lightning,
Tra Lan region splits bamboo fly ash.
The morale was ferocious
The stronger the army.
Tran Tri, Son Tho heard a little but lost their souls,
Ly An, Phuong Chinh, holding their breaths to escape.
After a long chase, our Tay Kinh army recaptured it,
Recruiting troops to attack, Dong Do old land recovered.
Ninh Kieu’s blood flowed into a river, floating for thousands of miles
Good Dong corpses are full of internal, dirty for thousands of years.
Blessing the enemy: Tran Hiep had to expose his head
Enemies: Ly Luong also had to die.
Vuong Thong removed the danger, but the fire burned even more
Ma Anh saved the battle, but our troops were even more aggressive.
Giving up to wait for defeat, the enemy was wise and exhausted,
If you don’t fight, but people suffer, I’m here to punish the mind.
No wonder he is still conspiring to commit crimes.
Keep one person’s opinion, so many others,
For a while, to make a name for yourself, to laugh for all the world.

The little boy Tuyen Duc moves his army non-stop
Cowards Thanh, Thang brought fire-fighting oil
In the month of September, Lieu Thang brought troops back from Khau On
That year in October, Moc Thanh divided the road from Yunnan to move forward.
I sent dangerous soldiers before, cutting off the vanguard
Then he ordered the general to block the road and cut off the food source
On the tenth of August, the battle of Chi Lang, Lieu Thang lost
On the twentieth day, the battle of Ma Yen, Lieu Thang lost his head
On the twenty-fifth day, Count Luong Minh was defeated and died
On the twenty-eighth day, minister Ly Khanh and his successor committed suicide.
At the same time, we put the blade to the breaking point
The enemy’s secret country turned the spear to fight
Another four-sided army surrounded the city
See you in mid-October to destroy the enemy
The good hero picks the brave man
This one chooses the fangs
The sword sharpens stone, the rock of the mountain also wears down
Elephants drink water, river water must dry up.
Fight one battle, clean no surprise
Fight two battles to destroy birds.
The wind blows away the dry leaves,
The ant nest collapsed and the dike broke.
Admiral Cui Tu dragged his knees to offer an apology note,
Senior Minister Hoang Phuc tied his hands to ask for goods.
Lang Giang, Lang Son, corpses full of sugar
Xuong Giang, Binh Than, blood red water
Horrible instead! Style and pattern must change,
Rather bleak! Eclipses to dim light
Being intercepted by me at Le Hoa, the Yunnan army was shocked and broke their honey!
Hearing Thang’s defeat at Can Tram, Moc Thanh’s army crossed over and ran to escape.
Lanh Cau stream, blood flowing, river water choking with crying
Dan Xa citadel, corpses piled up into mountains, internal grass covered with black blood.
The two armies who saved the army were shattered, unable to turn their heels in time,
The enemies of the cities are in trouble, take off their armor
The enemy general was imprisoned, like a hungry tiger wagging its tail, begging for life
Shen Vu does not kill, our hearts open the way to filial piety
Ma Ky, Phuong Chinh, granted five hundred boats, went to the sea but still lost their souls,
Vuong Thong, Ma Anh, distributed several thousand horses, returned to the country but still had a trembling heart.
They were greedy for life, afraid of death, but truly reconciled
It is better to take the whole army, let the people rest.
Not only magic tricks
Also never seen before
The rule of law from here is sustainable
From here, Jiangshan innovates
Be wise and then again
The sun and moon repent and then come back
A thousand years of clean humiliation
Forever a solid peace
Europe also thanks to the sacred ancestor heaven and earth silently supported;

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A velvet robe of victory,
Therefore, a thousand years of resounding work
The four directions of the sea are peaceful,
New screenings everywhere.

Far and near report,
Everyone is good.

2.2. Circumstances of birth:

In 1427, Lam Son insurgent army defeated two armies of Ming reinforcements led by Lieu Thang and Moc Thanh. Vuong Thong, who was entrenched in Dongguan citadel, heard the news and wrote a letter asking for peace in a panic.

Le Thai To approved, sent envoys to bring mats and items to the Ming Dynasty, King Minh sent Le Bo Thi Lang as Ly Ky mandarin, appointed Tran Cao as Annam King, deposed Bo Chinh at the court and withdrew his army. In December of the year of the Goat, Vuong Thong, according to an agreement with Binh Dinh, Vuong Le Loi brought his infantry across the Nhi Ha River, followed by the marines. Because the Ming army was brutal, someone advised Le Loi to kill all the remnants of the army, but Le Loi did not accept it, providing food and supplies for the Minh army to return. In 1428, Le Loi pacified the Ming army, and immediately sent Nguyen Trai to report the news on his behalf.

The author, on behalf of Le Loi, announced to the whole people the end of the resistance war against the Ming invaders and regained the independence of Dai Viet.

3. The 3rd Declaration of Independence of the Vietnamese people:

3.1. Contents of the Declaration of Independence:

This Declaration of Independence is both an important political document of the nation and a literary work of great value. According to Tran Dan Tien, it is “the result of many hopes, efforts and beliefs of more than twenty million Vietnamese people”. The Declaration of Independence affirmed the nation’s right to independence on the basis of human rights justice.

3.2. Circumstances of birth:

The Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, drafted by President Ho Chi Minh and read to the public at Ba Dinh flower garden (now Ba Dinh square) on September 2, 1945, is considered the second declaration of independence. three in Vietnamese history.

This manifesto was born with the August Revolution of 1945, when the Viet Minh took advantage of Japan’s surrender to the Allies to conduct a general uprising to seize power across the country from August 14, 1945.

On the momentum of the victory of the General Uprising, on the morning of August 26, 1945, at 48 Hang Ngang, Hanoi, President Ho Chi Minh convened and chaired a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Among the decisions of this meeting, the Standing Committee agreed to prepare the Declaration of Independence and hold a large rally in Hanoi for the Provisional Government to present to the people, which is also the day Vietnam officially declared its independence. independence and established the Democratic Republic.

On August 30, 1945, President Ho Chi Minh invited some people to comment on the Declaration of Independence drafted by him. On August 31, 1945, he added to the draft Declaration of Independence.

On September 2, 1945, at Ba Dinh Square, Hanoi, President Ho Chi Minh read the Declaration of Independence, giving birth to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in front of tens of thousands of compatriots.

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