Bài thu hoạch bồi dưỡng thường xuyên GV THPT Module 24

In the following article, we will introduce you to the regular training of high school teachers in Module 24 to help you understand the importance of assessment and how to build a matrix of exam questions.

1. Awareness of acquiring knowledge and skills:

Activity 1: Identify specific steps to develop test questions for a specific subject.

Step 1. Determine the purpose of the test.

The test is a tool used to evaluate the learning outcomes of students after completing a topic, a chapter, a semester, a class or a level of study, so the test takers need to base Based on the specific purpose and requirements of the test, based on the standard program of knowledge, skills and actual learning capacity of students to build appropriate test purposes.

Step 2. Determine the type of test.

The test (written) has the following forms:

– Essay exam;

– Objective test;

– The exam combines both forms: there are both essay-type questions and objective multiple-choice questions.

All forms have their own advantages and limitations, so it is necessary to combine forms appropriately to suit the test content and subject specifics to improve efficiency and convenience for learning.

If the test is a combination of two types of questions, it is advisable to give different types of questions or give students an objective test that is independent of the essay test: take the objective test first.

Step 3. Make a matrix of test questions (Describe test criteria).

Making a table has two dimensions, one dimension is the content or the main knowledge and skill circuit to be assessed, the other is the students’ cognitive level according to the levels: awareness, understanding, application (including both low level and high level)

Step 4. Compile the question according to the matrix.


Theme name.








Low level

High level

Thread 1

Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences … points = …


Topic 2

Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences

points = …


Theme n

Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences


Number of sentences

points = …


Total number of questions Total points Percentage %

Number of sentences



Number of sentences



Number of sentences



Number of sentences



Determined according to the levels: knowing, understanding, applying, teachers must base themselves on the standard system of knowledge and skills specified in the subject program to state the requirements to be achieved according to the students’ levels. .

– Awareness: is the lowest level, mainly remembering and recalling previously learned things, requiring recall or re-perception of facts, terms, conventions, principles, laws, characteristics …, there is no need to interpret the information obtained. Verbs that describe the requirements to be achieved at this level include verbs: recognize, state, state, write, list, etc.

– Comprehension: includes knowing but at a higher level, requires knowing the meaning of knowledge, relating them to what has been learned and known. Understanding manifests itself in three forms: First, being able to communicate information received in another form or in another form of information; Second, when given information, can grasp the main ideas contained in the information, including the ability to recognize basic ideas and distinguish main ideas;

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Application: Solving math problems with learned knowledge and skills requires logical thinking, analysis and synthesis. Verbs that express the requirements to be achieved at this level are usually: able to apply, solve exercises, do…

* Build matrix of test questions

When writing questions, you must rely on the feature table (also known as the feature table, or two-dimensional matrix table). This feature table is considered as a useful tool to help candidates compose questions suitable for teaching objectives, it classifies each multiple-choice question into two basic dimensions, one is student behavior, requirements, one-way is the construction of textbooks and subject curricula.

To make a table of characteristics, it is necessary to conduct internal analysis of the subject, list specific teaching objectives or the competencies to be measured.

The basic steps to create the exam matrix:

– B1: list the topic name (construction, chapter…) to be checked;

– B2: Write benchmarks for each thinking level;

– B3: Decide to allocate total points for each topic (construction, chapter…);

– B4: Decide the total score of the test;

– B5: Calculate the number of points for each topic (construction, content…) corresponding to the percentage;

– B6: Calculate percentage, score and decide the number of questions for all relevant criteria;

– B7: Calculate the total score and total number of questions for each column;

– B8: Calculate the percentage of total lung distribution scores for each column;

– B9: Re-evaluate the matrix and make corrections if necessary.

Step 5. Develop grading instructions (answers) and grading scale.

The development of grading instructions (answers) and grading scale for the test should ensure the following requirements: Construction: scientific, accurate. Presentation: specific, detailed but concise and easy to understand, suitable for the exam matrix.

Step 6. Review the compilation of test questions.

After compiling the test, it is necessary to review the compilation of the test, including the following steps:

– Compare each question with the scoring guide and scale,

– Compare each question with the question matrix, consider whether the question matches the criteria to be evaluated or not.

-Complete topics, grading instructions and grading scale.

2. Take the written test and the objective test:

– Multiple choice sentences: For multiple-choice sentences, you need to express yourself clearly, paying attention to the grammatical structure. Word choice must be correct, should try many ways of asking questions and choose the simplest way to ask questions, avoid increasing the difficulty level of the question by expressing complex sentences, avoid using words.

Sentences that are too long and general can be divided into several short questions, limiting the length of each sentence.

– There are two ways of scoring, namely for analysis and for group points, but for the purpose of testing and evaluation.

The first is analytical scoring, which is done by scoring responses based on each defined criterion. Thus, in the lesson, there will be component points and then added together. This grading method needs to be based on and stick to the answer and the scale

The second is the categorical dot. This type of test requires the examiner to read the entire text first, then arrange the work in groups. Can be classified into three or five categories. Divide the work into groups before giving points to the examiner to think and compare the works with each other

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Scoring of essays requires independence among grading students. Grade 2 students do not know how many points the old students give, and the teacher does not know the students’ names and grades to avoid affecting perception and ensure objectivity.

3. Practice writing objective multiple-choice questions:

Requirements for objective multiple-choice questions

– For the opening sentence that must be clearly expressed, a question or incomplete sentence can be used as the opening sentence. Do not include too much material in the quote. Avoid using negative quotes. However, if the negative is in the first sentence, the word “no” should be underlined for emphasis.

– It is necessary to arrange the answer options in the questions in a random position, not in a mechanical order. Avoid using the “All options above” or “None of the above” options, or making a choice between the two.

– The question must assess the important content of the program.

– The question must match the exam criteria in terms of presentation and corresponding score.

– Do not quote the sentences given in the textbook.

– Every wrong alternative should be built on the student’s mistakes or misconceptions.

– The correct answer to this question must be independent of the correct answers to the other questions on the test.

– The selected part must be consistent and consistent with the quoted content.

Ask to write true and false sentences

This type of sentence requires students to choose one of two options, which can be true or false. It can also be yes or no agree or disagree.

– True – false sentences should be written very briefly, avoiding ambiguity, the question must have a classification of right and wrong.

– Avoid quoting archetypes in textbooks as they may not be intact when separated.

– Avoid negative sentences, especially double negatives. If using a negative or double negative sentence, you should underline the word no to distinguish clearly.

Suggestions for writing sentences to fill in the blanks

Fill in the sentence that represents a form of the short answer. When writing this type of question, do not leave too much space in the sentence, because too much space will make the sentence confusing and difficult to understand. For sentences that need to be filled in, it is also advisable to limit the use of textbook sentence patterns, as those sentences often make sense in a particular context.

Suggestions for writing compound sentences

– The form of a compound sentence consists of two columns, one column is arranged by letters, one column is arranged by numbers, asking students to choose letters and numbers to put together. It should be clearly stated in the answer instructions so that respondents know that each answer can be used more than once. For younger students, lines connecting two columns can be drawn.

When writing compound sentences, it is necessary to arrange the clauses clearly, making sure that the right sides are the same. When writing a question, it is necessary to clearly explain the basis of connecting two columns in the sentence.

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4. Applying knowledge and skills through professional activities:

4.1. The relationship between teaching and assessment:

Assessment of learning outcomes to assist in improving the quality and effectiveness of teaching.

– Teachers need to know if the content of teaching and learning is enough, what to add, whether the teaching method is appropriate, and how to support learners. To know these things well and make appropriate decisions, teachers must base on testing and evaluating learning results.

Through the assessment, teachers know the level of the learners, the weaknesses of the students before entering the school. This is very important for short-term, advanced training courses because it helps teachers identify the needs of their learners so that appropriate learning goals can be set.

Assess how students promote learning.

– Timely informing the progress of students, having the effect of motivating students to study, motivating and encouraging them to study better and better, specifying which content is not good, which content is not good.

Assessment helps to form for students the need for the habit of self-assessment, improving the sense of responsibility, the will to excel in learning and training.

Evaluation as the basis for rational decision making.

– Evaluate and improve teaching quality.

4.2. Make observations to adjust and support the teaching process:

Observation device

The reference chart is an observational tool for assessing student participation in small group activities. Example of a student attendance chart in a discussion:

1: Come up with new, creative and critical ideas.

2: Relatively important opinion,

3: The opinion is not convincing.

4: Opinions have no value.

It is also possible to design a graph that observes student participation in small groups

The chessboard makes it possible for an observer to quickly and efficiently record whether a feature occurs, but does not indicate how often the feature occurs. Example test table below:

Student’s name





The Observer

Instructions: The items listed below are characteristics related to caring for others. Consider which traits are appropriate for the above student (mark an X for those that appear, 0 for those that don’t).

– The rating scale is considered as a commonly used tool to assess attitudes, helping to assess students in many personality traits such as discipline, enthusiasm, attention, punctuality… The rating scale is very useful in assessment of processes, products and personal development.

However, it is presented in descriptive form. For example, observing student enthusiasm during an activity shows:

1. Very enthusiastic;

2. Enthusiasm;

3. Less enthusiasm;

4. Not enthusiastic;

5. Very unenthusiastic.

Or mistakes when guiding group activities, showing:

1. Lots of bugs;

2.Many bugs;

3.There are some flaws;

4. Fewer errors;

5. Very few bugs.

*Some suggestions when using the rating scale

For the rating scale, it is necessary to define the domain of specific characteristics to be evaluated, specify the characteristics to be evaluated and the characteristics used in the rating scale, to evaluate each specific factor.

For the evaluator, it is necessary to conduct the assessment correctly. Reviewers should be selected in an objective and unbiased manner.

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